A Statistical Model for Synthesis of Detailed Facial Geometry
(ACM: ACM Transactions on Graphics (TOG), 2006.)
Detailed surface geometry contributes greatly to the visual realism of 3D face models. However, acquiring high-resolution face geometry is often tedious and expensive. Consequently, most face models used in games, virtual reality, or computer vision look unrealistically smooth. In this paper, we introduce a new statistical technique for the analysis and synthesis of small three-dimensional facial features, such as wrinkles and pores. We acquire high-resolution face geometry for people across a wide range of ages, genders, and races. For each scan, we separate the skin surface details from a smooth base mesh using displaced subdivision surfaces. Then, we analyze the resulting displacement maps using the texture analysis/synthesis framework of Heeger and Bergen, adapted to capture statistics that vary spatially across a face. Finally, we use the extracted statistics to synthesize plausible detail on face meshes of arbitrary subjects. We demonstrate the effectiveness of this method in several applications, including analysis of facial texture in subjects with different ages and genders, interpolation between highresolution face scans, adding detail to low-resolution face scans, and adjusting the apparent age of faces. In all cases, we are able to re-produce fine geometric details consistent with those observed in high resolution scans.