Human or Machine? Turing Tests for Vision and Language
arXiv preprint arXiv:2211.13087, 2022.
As AI algorithms increasingly participate in daily activities that used to be the sole province of humans, we are inevitably called upon to consider how much machines are really like us. To address this question, we turn to the Turing test and systematically benchmark current AIs in their abilities to imitate humans. We establish a methodology to evaluate humans versus machines in Turing-like tests and systematically evaluate a representative set of selected domains, parameters, and variables. The experiments involved testing 769 human agents, 24 state-of-the-art AI agents, 896 human judges, and 8 AI judges, in 21,570 Turing tests across 6 tasks encompassing vision and language modalities. Surprisingly, the results reveal that current AIs are not far from being able to impersonate human judges across different ages, genders, and educational levels in complex visual and language challenges. In contrast, simple AI judges outperform human judges in distinguishing human answers versus machine answers. The curated large-scale Turing test datasets introduced here and their evaluation metrics provide valuable insights to assess whether an agent is human or not. The proposed formulation to benchmark human imitation ability in current AIs paves a way for the research community to expand Turing tests to other research areas and conditions. All of source code and data are publicly available.